Because the nature of a personal communication -- such as an interview, letter, email, telephone conversation -- is not recoverable, information used from these forms of communication is cited within the text of a paper or work but a reference is not included in the References list. The in-text citation includes the initials and last name of the communicator followed by the term "personal communication" and the date that the communication took place. See examples below:
When an author of a resource cannot be identified, the Title element of the citation moves into the Author position in the Reference. In order for the in-text citation to match the first two elements of the Reference, the in-text citation also begins with the title followed by the publication year. Note that long titles are shorted to just the first few words.
NOTE: Article titles are enclosed in quotation marks in the in-text citation. For example:
Reference for an article:
Expanding the robot brain: With material robotics. (2018). Machine Design, 90(1), 14. Retrieved from http://www.machinedesign.com
In-text citation (parenthetical reference):
("Expanding the Robot Brain," 2018)
In some cases, an author may wish to cite information that was cited in source material. A secondary source in-text citation is used in this situation.
In some cases, two or more works may be cited within the same in-text citation.
In general, classical works such as the Bible or Qur'an do not require a reference in the References list, but should include an in-text citation. If a translation of the work is being cited, state the work followed by the date of the translation. For example:
(Aristotle, trans. 1931).
Likewise, if a specific version of the Bible is being cited, include the version in the in-text citation. For example:
1 Cor. 13:1 (King James Version)