In the box below, you will find examples of references and in-text citations for each source. Select the type of audio or video you are citing using the tabs.
In-text citation examples shown are for paraphrases and summaries (Author-Date pattern). When citing a direct quote, you will also need to include either a page number or paragraph number (Author-Date-# pattern). Visit the In-Text Citations tab to the left for more information!
If your audio or video recording has more than one author, click here.
If your audio or video recording is missing an author, date, or title, click here.
Please note that according to APA formatting rules, references are double spaced in the References list (see rule 6.22 in the Publication Manual). Due to space limitations, examples of APA references provided below are single spaced.