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APA 6th Edition Guide

About Citing Articles

In the box below, you will find examples of references and in-text citations for each source. Select the type of article you are citing using the tabs.

In-text citation examples shown are for paraphrases and summaries (Author-Date pattern). When citing a direct quote, you will also need to include either a page number or paragraph number (Author-Date-# pattern). Visit the In-Text Citations tab to the left for more information!


  1. In-text citations are located within the text of your paper and references are located in the references page at the end of your paper.
  2. References use a hanging indentClick here for more information!
  3. References are double spaced

If your journal, magazine or newspaper article has more than one author, click here.

If your journal, magazine, or newspaper article is missing an author, date, or title, click here.

Important Note about Example References

Please note that according to APA formatting rules, references are double spaced in the References list (see rule 6.22 in the Publication Manual). Due to space limitations, examples of APA references provided below are single spaced.

Article Citations - Select the type of article you are citing from the tabs below

NOTE:  When creating the "Access" segment of the References list citation for journals that do not have DOI numbers, you have the option of ending the citation with the URL for the home page of the journal OR the "Permalink" provided by the database vendor for the article.

How to find the Permalink to a journal article in library databases

How to find the Permalink in OVID

View this "Answer" for more information about constructing a reference for a Nursing Reference Center article.


What is a DOI?

DOI stands for "digital object identifier;" each DOI identifies and locates a piece of electronic information.

A DOI consists of a string of numbers and letters. They always begin with a 10. The DOI: 10.1111/j.1753-4887.2008.00114.x is for an article about chocolate.

DOIs come into play when creating references for electronic information. Since DOIs are more permanent than urls or web addresses, citation guides (like APA's) prefer them over urls. If you use NoodleTools to create your references, it will ask you for a DOI when appropriate.

Include in front of the doi number, instead of doi (change made summer 2013, according to the latest edition of the APA Style Guide to Electronic References and verified in the official APA Style Blog at

You will normally find DOIs in database information about the article, on the first page of a journal article, or near the copyright notice for the item in question. If you cannot find the DOI on the item itself, you can check CrossRef to see if one exists. Below is an example of a DOI in a database information listing.

Use this DOI flowchart to determine if you should include a DOI, URL, or database information in your citation.