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Writing Guide

Annotated Bibliography, Abstract, & Appendices

What's an annotated bibliography?

An annotated bibliography is the full citation of a source followed by notes and commentary about a source. The word “annotate” means “critical or explanatory notes” and the word “bibliography” means “a list of sources”.  Annotations are meant to be critical in addition to being descriptive. Annotated bibliographies are useful because they present a list of resources that others can use for research, and each resource has information that describes what is in it and that evaluates it (describes what makes it unique, useful, or helpful).

Take a look at the Annotated Bibliography page of the APA Guide for more information. In the APA Guide you will find a short video explaining the process, anatomy of an annotated bibliography, formatting guidelines, and examples. 


 
 
 

What's an abstract?

The purpose of an abstract is to provide a reader with a short summary of a written work. Generally, it is one paragraph ranging from 150 to 250 words.  A well written abstract should be accurate, non-evaluative, readable, and concise.

Take a look at our Abstract FAQ for more information. In this FAQ you will find the anatomy of an abstract, formatting guidelines, along with examples. 


Want to learn more? Check out APA Academic Writer's Quick Guide on Abstracts and Keywords:

Abstract and Keywords

Learn how to write an abstract and how to select keywords, including how to achieve the appropriate length, content, and format.

Academic Writer

© 2020 American Psychological Association.

What are appendices?

An appendix is a section at the end of a paper that includes information that is too detailed for the text of the paper itself and would "burden the reader" or be "distracting," or "inappropriate" (APA, 2010, p. 38-9).‚Äč 

Take a look at the Appendices FAQ for more information. In this FAQ you will find the anatomy of an appendix, formatting guidelines, along with an example. 


Want to learn more? Check out APA Academic Writer's Quick Guide on Appendices:

Appendices

Learn how to write appendices, including what content to include in appendices, how to format them, and how to discuss them in the text.

Academic Writer

© 2020 American Psychological Association.

Resources for Annotated Bibliographies, Abstracts, & Appendices