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Writing Guide

Annotated Bibliography, Abstract, & Appendices

What's an annotated bibliography?

An annotated bibliography is the full citation of a source followed by notes and commentary about a source. The word “annotate” means “critical or explanatory notes” and the word “bibliography” means “a list of sources”.  Annotations are meant to be critical in addition to being descriptive. Annotated bibliographies are useful because they present a list of resources that others can use for research, and each resource has information that describes what is in it and that evaluates it (describes what makes it unique, useful, or helpful).

Take a look at the Annotated Bibliography page of the APA Guide for more information. In the APA Guide you will find a short video explaining the process, anatomy of an annotated bibliography, formatting guidelines, and examples. 


What's an abstract?

The purpose of an abstract is to provide a reader with a short summary of a written work. Generally, it is one paragraph ranging from 150 to 250 words.  A well written abstract should be accurate, non-evaluative, readable, and concise.

Take a look at our Abstract FAQ for more information. In this FAQ you will find the anatomy of an abstract, formatting guidelines, along with examples. 

Want to learn more? Check out APA Academic Writer's Quick Guide on Abstracts and Keywords:

Abstract and Keywords

Learn how to write an abstract and how to select keywords, including how to achieve the appropriate length, content, and format.

Academic Writer

© 2020 American Psychological Association.

What are appendices?

An appendix is a section at the end of a paper that includes information that is too detailed for the text of the paper itself and would "burden the reader" or be "distracting," or "inappropriate" (APA, 2010, p. 38-9).‚Äč 

Take a look at the Appendices FAQ for more information. In this FAQ you will find the anatomy of an appendix, formatting guidelines, along with an example. 

Want to learn more? Check out APA Academic Writer's Quick Guide on Appendices:


Learn how to write appendices, including what content to include in appendices, how to format them, and how to discuss them in the text.

Academic Writer

© 2020 American Psychological Association.

Resources for Annotated Bibliographies, Abstracts, & Appendices

Paper Review (Brainfuse Writing Lab)

The Writing Lab Rubric

Use this rubric as a first step to self-assess your assignment.  After determining which column you think best describes your work, use the resources to the right to improve your work.  Refer back to it each time you feel you are near completion of the assignment to help you stay on track.  This is also the same rubric that the Writing Lab staff will use to provide feedback and resources suggestions.

Video: How to use the Rubric 

Submit to the Writing Lab (in Brainfuse)

Writing is a process. It helps to have feedback from others as you go through that process.  You can submit your work for review to the Writing Lab. Just make sure you have time before your submission deadline (it takes 24-48 hours).  Here's the process:

      After using the rubric to self-assess where you're at in terms of your assignment and you've made changes using the resources provided, you can opt to submit your assignment to the Writing Lab in Brainfuse for feedback and suggestions.  Once you're logged into Brainfuse, click on the Writing Lab. How to use the Writing Lab.

Using the Writing Lab

  1. Select your citation format (Typically APA 7th Edition).
  2. Add your assignment instructions for the reviewer.
  3. Select up to 3 areas from the provided list where you would like the writing tutor to focus his/her analysis. If no selection is made, then a general review will be completed.
  4. Add any additional comments, upload your assignment and click Submit.
  5. In 24-48 hours, go back into the Message Center in Brainfuse and find your reviewed paper.  You may find suggested specific resources for you, one of which may be a tutor appointment.  How to make an appointment with a tutor
  6. Revise your paper using the resources suggested.  If you have any questions, make an appointment with the tutor using Tutor Match  How to make an appointment with a tutor
  7. After you have made your revisions, use the rubric again to self-assess.  At that point, you may feel your assignment is ready to submit to your instructor.  If that is the case, do so. If you think your assignment needs more work, you may resubmit your assignment to the   How do I use the Writing Lab?
  8. When you feel your assignment is ready for submission to your instructor, submit it using the assignment drop box within your course