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Health Education and Training

Health Belief Model:

For people to adopt recommended physical activity behaviors, their perceived threat of disease and benefits of action must outweigh their perceived barriers to action.

Key Concepts:

  • Perceived susceptibility
  • Perceived severity
  • Perceived benefits of action
  • Perceived barriers to action
  • Cues to action
  • Self – efficacy

Transtheoretical Model:

In adopting healthy behaviors (e.g., regular physical activity) or eliminating unhealthy ones (e.g., watching television), people progress through five levels related to their readiness to change—pre-contemplation, contemplation, preparation, action, and maintenance. At each stage, different intervention strategies will help people progress to the next stage.

Key Concepts:

  • Pre-contemplation
  • Contemplation
  • Preparation
  • Action
  • Maintenance

Social Cognitive Theory:

Health behavioral change is the result of reciprocal relationships among the environment, personal factors, and attributes of the behavior itself. Self-efficacy is one of the most important characteristics that determine behavioral change.

Key Concepts:

  • Self-efficacy

  • Reciprocal determinism
  • Behavioral capability
  • Outcome expectations
  • Observational learning

Social Support Model:

Often incorporated into health promotion interventions, social support can be instrumental, informational, emotional, or appraising (providing feedback and reinforcement of new behavior)

Key Concepts:

  • Instrumental support
  • Informational support
  • Emotional support
  • Appraisal support

Community Organization Model:

Public health workers help communities identify health and social problems, and they plan and implement strategies to address these problems. Active community participation is essential.

Key Concepts:

  • Social planning
  • Locality development
  • Social action

Ecological Approaches:

Effective interventions must influence multiple levels because health is shaped by many environmental subsystems, including family, community, workplace, beliefs and traditions, economics, and the physical and social environments.

Key Concepts:

  • Intrapersonal
  • Interpersonal
  • Institutional
  • Community
  • Public Policy


What Models Are Effective in Rural Settings?

Rural communities are also implementing various models for health promotion and disease prevention programs. Common approaches used by communities include:

Community Organization Model:

The Community Organization Model is a participatory decision-making process that empowers communities to improve health.

Key Concepts:

  • Active participation
  • Identifies key health issues
  • Focus on strength
  • Mobilization to develop programs

Community Readiness Model:

Community readiness refers to how prepared the community is to take action to address a particular health issue.

Key Concepts:

  • Absence of awareness
  • Denial or resistance
  • Vague awareness
  • Pre-planning
  • Preparation
  • Initiation
  • Stabilization
  • Confirmation/Expansion
  • High level of community ownership


The PRECEDE-PROCEED model is a comprehensive structure for assessing health needs for designing, implementing, and evaluating health promotion and other public health programs to meet those needs.

Key Concepts:

  • Provides structure for planning
  • Supports targeted and focused public health program
  • Structure for implementing/evaluating public health program

Clinical Models:

Healthcare providers and facilities play an instrumental role in improving the health of rural residents.

Key Concepts:

  • Supports system change
  • Supports deliverance of care to patients
  • Management of chronic conditions and disease
  • Prevention of chronic conditions and disease

Workplace Model:

Rural workplaces can greatly benefit from health promotion and disease prevention programs.

Key Concepts:

  • Improvement of workforce
  • Supports employee wellness
  • Reduces costs associated with injury/illness