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APA 7th Edition Guide

This guide provides an overview of the APA citation style and provides students with basic information to begin learning and applying this style in their academic writing.

How to Create a Reference when Information is Missing

Creating a Reference When Information is Missing


The table below provides helpful guidance when creating a reference when information for one of the four elements (Author, Date, Title, Source) is missing.  This table is adapted from Table 9.1 How to Create a Reference When Information is Missing (APA, 2020, p. 284).

An APA reference is composed of four elements:

Author. (Date). Title. Source.

Notice that each element ends with a period EXCEPT when the source elements ends with a URL.  The inclusion of a period would interfere with the link's functionality.