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Rasmussen University
Rasmussen University Online Library

APA 7th Edition Guide

This guide provides an overview of the APA citation style and provides students with basic information to begin learning and applying this style in their academic writing.

Creating a Reference for eTextbooks and Course Materials

eTextbook Reference

References are composed of four elements:

Author. (Date). Title. Source.

Use the chart below to identify the pieces of information needed to create a reference for an e-textbook.

Note: Each element of the reference ends with a period except URLs or DOIs.

 

Note. Adapted from Reference Examples, Textual Works, section 10.1 in the Publication Manual (7th ed.) (American Psychological Association, 2020, p. 321).

eBook Reference

References are composed of four elements:

Author. (Date). Title. Source.

Use the chart below to identify the pieces of information needed to create a reference for an eBook.

Note: Each element of the reference ends with a period except URLs or DOIs.

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Course Content Reference

References are composed of four elements:

Author. (Date). Title. Source.

Use the chart below to identify the pieces of information needed to create a reference for course content.

Note: Each element of the reference ends with a period except URLs.

Note. Adapted from Reference Examples, Audiovisual Media Works, section 10.11 in the Publication Manual (7th ed.) (American Psychological Association, 2020, p. 347).

Live Lecture Reference

References are composed of four elements:

Author. (Date). Title. Source.

Use the chart below to identify the pieces of information needed to create a reference for a course lecture.

Note: Each element of the reference ends with a period except URLs.

Note. Adapted from Reference Examples, Audiovisual Media, section 10.11 in the Publication Manual (7th ed.) (American Psychological Association, 2020, p. 342).

NOTE: Citing information gathered while listening to a lecture as it is being delivered-- and is not recorded-- would be considered a "personal communication" because it would be unrecoverable.  Personal Communications are only cited in the text using this format:

Narrative Citation: ...A. Author (personal communication, Month Day, Year)...

Parenthetical citation: (A. Author, personal communication, Month Day, Year).

Course PowerPoint Reference

References are composed of four elements:

Author. (Date). Title. Source.

Use the chart below to identify the pieces of information needed to create a reference for a PowerPoint presentation embedded in a course.

Note: Each element of the reference ends with a period except URLs.

Note. Adapted from Reference Examples, Visual Works, section 10.14 in the Publication Manual (7th ed.) (American Psychological Association, 2020, p. 347).