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APA 7th Edition Guide

This guide provides an overview of the APA citation style and provides students with basic information to begin learning and applying this style in their academic writing.

Creating a Reference for an Image, Movie, T.V. Series, Podcast, Music Recording

Audio-Visual Media Reference

References are composed of four elements:

Author. (Date). Title. Source.

Use the chart below to identify the pieces of information needed to create a reference for audio or visual work.

Note: Each element of the reference ends with a period except URLs or DOIs.


Note. Adapted from Reference Examples, Audiovisual Media, section 10.12 in the Publication Manual (7th ed.) (American Psychological Association, 2020, p. 342).

Author Segment: Use the chart below to determine the author of the audio or visual work being cited:


American Psychological Association. (2020). Publication manual of the American Psychological Association (7th  ed.).

Example References for Audiovisual Media

Images Reproduced From Source Material

Images, charts, or graphs that have been reproduced or adapted from source material and inserted in a research assignment require a copyright attribution statement. This statement appears below the image or chart in a Note. Use the table below to construct the attribution statement.




Note. From Outbreak of Lung Injury Associated with the Use of e-Cigarette, or Vaping, Products, by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2020 ( In the public domain.

Note about the use of clip art and stock photos found online:

  • Before using an image, check the license to determine if attribution is required.  (For example, most Creative Commons licenses allow free use of an image as long as the creator is given credit for the image.)
  • Images that require attribution must include a copyright statement below the image as well as a reference in the References list.

See these articles from the APA Style Experts for more information:

PowerPoint Slides
Reference In-Text Citation

Author's Last Name, First Initial. Middle Initial. (Year, Month Day). Title of slide presentation [PowerPoint slides]. Publisher. http://URL

Belshaw, D. (2012, June 9). TELIC: The essential elements of digital literacies [PowerPoint slides]. SlideShare.

(Belshaw, 2012).


At the conclusion of the presentation, Belshaw (2012) reiterated that...

Film or Video
Reference In-Text Citation

Director's Last Name, First Initial. Middle Initial. (Director). (Year). Title of motion picture [Film]. Production Company. https://URL

Stone, O. (Director). (2010). Wall Street: Money never sleeps [Film]. 20th Century Fox.

(Stone, 2010).


In his movie, Stone (2010) highlights...

Streamed Video
Reference In-Text Citation

Producer's Last Name, First Initial. Middle Initial. (Year, Month Day). Title of video [Video]. Video platform. https://URL

Ferrer, E. (2020, September 7). It’s about time [Video]. Vimeo.

(Ferrer, 2020).


In this animated video, Ferrer (2020) highlights...

Single Episode from a Television Series
Reference In-Text Citation

Writer's Last Name, First Initial. Middle Initial. (Writer), & Director's Last Name, First Initial. Middle Initial. (Director). (Year). Title of episode [TV series episode]. In Executive Producer's First Initial, Middle Initial. Last Name (Executive Producer), Title of television series. Production Company. https://URL

Wilmore, L. (Writer), & Feig, P. (Director). (2005). Performance review [TV series episode]. In G. Daniels (Executive Producer), The office. NBC Universal Television.

(Wilmore & Feig, 2005).




In this episode, Wilmore and Feig (2005) include...

Reference In-Text Citation

Host's Last Name, First Initial. Middle Initial. (Host). (Year, Month Day). Title of podcast [Audio podcast]. Production Company. https://URL

Abumrad, J., & Lechtenberg, S. (Hosts). (2020, May 6). Dispatch 5: Don’t stop believin’ [Audio podcast]. Radiolab.

(Abumrad & Lechtenberg, 2020).


In the podcast, Abumrad and Lechtenberg (2020) talk about...

Music Recording
Reference In-Text Citation

Recording Artist Last Name, First Initial. Middle Initial. (Date). Title of song [Song]. On Album title. Recording Company.

Clarkson, K. (2015). Heartbeat song [Song]. On Piece by piece. RCA.

(Clarkson, 2015).


In the song, Clarkson (2015) expresses…

APA Academic Writer

Find example references for a wide variety of resource types in APA Academic Writer.  Click on the Learn tab, then click on the Go to Sample References button.  Scroll through the alphabetical list of resource types and click on the type that matches the resource you are citing to view an example reference.  Click the Learn More link for additional information.