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PTN1454: Sterile and Non-Sterile Compounding

PTN1454: Sterile and Non-Sterile Compounding

In-text Citation

In-text Citations appear in the body of your paper to let your reader know that you are citing a resource. In-text citations are generally very short and don't contain a lot of information.

If your reader wants to learn more about the resource you cited or wants to locate the resource on their own, then they will look at the references list to locate the additional information. This is why each in-text citation needs to have a matching reference and each reference needs to have a matching in-text citation. The reference provides the full citation information and the in-text citation shows exactly where you used the resource in your paper.

In order for your reader to easily locate which in-text citation belongs to which references list citation, the in-text citation will match the first two elements in the reference:

In-Text Citation: 

(Webb & Jones, 2009)


Webb, S. J., & Jones, E. J. H. (2009). Early identification of autism: Early characteristics, onset of symptoms, and diagnostic stability. Infants & Young Children, 22(2), 100-118.

Remember - There are two places you need to cite your sources:

  • In the actual text of your paper 
    • These are called In-Text Citations
  • In the references list at the end or your paper
    • These are called References


Welcome to the References page of the APA Guide!  You can find examples of both in-text and reference list citations by exploring the tabs to the left or clicking the links below.  Simply click on the resource type that you need help with.

For more information about writing, please visit Writing Guide.

There are many criteria that can be used to determine whether or not information from a source is credible. Some of the most important criteria are listed below. A handy set of tools and steps to verify the accuracy and credibility of resources is the SCRAAP test.


  1. Does the author or agency that created the information have the credentials, academic background, or experience to write authoritatively about the topic?
    • Authors:
      • Google their name(s) they have a degree related to the topic they are addressing?
      • Watch out for people with degrees (MA, MS, PhD) in a field unrelated to what they are writing about. A PhD in English does not qualify someone to give medical advice, for instance.
    • Agencies:


  1. Is there a reason to believe that the information provided by the author/agency is slanted or designed to persuade the reader? Maybe it only presents part of the whole story?
    • It is acceptable to use biased information as long as you understand it is biased and you acknowledge that in your paper.
    • If you use a biased source, it is a good idea to find opposing information.
    • To find sources on different sides of an issue (pro and con, opposing viewpoints, compare-contrast), see our Comparison Contrast FAQ.
  2. Be aware of your own biases as you consume and use information. 
    • Do your personal opinions change the way you interpret information?
    • Are you open to points of view that are different than your own?
    • Do you choose only sources of information that reflect your personal point of view?


  1. What is the date of the source? In the case of a website, is there a last-updated date?
  2. Does the date matter?
    • Information in some areas and disciplines changes all the time and/or needs to be up-to-date. For example:
      • Would you want information about cancer treatments from 1980? No!
      • Would you want information about Shakespeare from 1980? Maybe, as Shakespeare's works will not have changed with time. 

Care Taken / Indicators of Quality

  1. Are claims made by the source backed up with documented and cited sources?
    • Can you get to the sources if they are online?
    • Are the sources of high quality?
    • Are the sources balanced or biased?
    • Do the sources really cover what they are supposed to?
  2. Review for correct spelling, grammar, and mechanics. A quality resource will have been carefully reviewed and edited.
  3. Verify the credibility of the publisher